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Vacations - The uncoated or missed portion of a painted surface or object.(See Skips and Holidays).

Vacuum Blast Cleaning - Abrasive blast cleaning using equipment that is equipped with a vacuum shroud to capture abrasives, dust, debris, and other materials while they are being generated and to prevent them from escaping into the environment.

Vacuum Cleaner - One of several types of suction devices used to collect dirt from the bottom of a swimming pool; these units work in a variety of ways - some force collected dirt to the filter, others to the waste drain, or into a porous container.

Vacuum Control System - Intake manifold vacuum is used to operate dampers and controls in some air compressors systems.

Vacuum Gauge - Instrument used to measure pressures below atmospheric pressure.

Vacuum Piping - The pipe from the suction side of a pump connected to a vacuum fitting located at the pool and below the water level to which underwater cleaning equipment may be attached.

Vacuum Pump - Special high efficiency device used for creating high vacuums.

Vacuum - 1. A space absolutely devoid of matter. 2. Pressure lower than atmospheric pressure.

Valley Flashing - Thin sheet metal used to line the valley of a roof.

Valley Rafter - A diagonal rafter that supports a roof valley.

Valley - The "V" shaped area of a roof where two sloping roofs meet. Water drains off the roof at the valleys.

Valuation fee - Th fee paid by the prospective borrower for the lender's inspection of the property. Normally paid upon loan application.

Valuation - The opinion of a real estate appraiser as to the value of a parcel of real property.

Value Engineering - The process of analyzing the cost versus the value and alternative materials, equipment, and systems.

Value of the Assets - The assets of a company in terms of dollar value.

Value - 1. The worth of something measured monetarily. 2. Term used to distinguish dark colors from light ones; dark values are known as shades; light values as tints.

Value - Relative lightness or darkness of a color. (i.e. light blue, medium blue and dark blue have different values)

Valve Plate - Part of a compressor located between the top of the compressor body and the head, containing compressor valves and ports.

Valve - A device to stop, start or regulate the flow of liquid or gas through or from piping.

Van Dyke Brown - A brown pigment which consists of decomposed vegetable matter that has almost approached the coal state; it is weak in hiding power compared to umber and sienna.

Vanadium - 1. A hard gray malleable ductile metallic element found in several ores and used as an alloy in small quantities for strengthening some steels. 2. Vanadium steel.

Vane - A revolving pointer mounted on a high place to show the direction of the wind.

Vanity Cabinet - Case, box, or piece of furniture which rests on the floor and receives a lavatory, commonly has shelves and doors and is primarily used as storage for below lavatory.

Vapor Barrier - A building product installed on exterior walls and ceilings under the drywall and on the warm side of the insulation. It is used to retard the movement of water vapor into walls and prevent condensation within them. Normally, polyethylene plastic sheeting is used.

Vapor Degreasing - A cleaning process utilizing condensing solvent as the cleaning agent.

Vapor Lock - Condition where liquid is trapped in line because of bend or improper installation; such vapor prevents liquid flow.

Vapor Migration - The movement of water vapor from a region of high vapor pressure to a region of lower vapor pressure.

Vapor Pressure Curve - Graphic presentation of various pressures produced by refrigerant under various temperatures.

Vapor Pressure - Pressure imposed by either a vapor or gas.

Vapor Retarder - (See Vapor Barrier).

Vapor - The gaseous form of any substance.

Vaporization - Conversion from liquid or solid to a gaseous state.

Variable Pitch Pulley - Pulley which can be adjusted to provide different pulley drive ratios.

Variable - Changing; subject to change, not constant; indeterminate.

Variance - A deviation in a building or zoning ordinance granted by an appeal authority upon relevant grounds being proven.

Varnish Stain - Varnish combined with stain.

Varnish - An oil-based paint containing a solvent and an oxidizing or an evaporating binder, used to coat a natural wood surface with a hard, glossy, thin transparent finish.

Varnishing - Application of varnish to a surface.

Vault Door - A hinged, pivoted, or sliding member that permits passage to an enclosure built for safety or security.

Vault - 1. An arched surface. 2. An arch translated along an axis normal to the plane of its centerline curve. 3. A room to store valuable items.

Vegetable Oils - Any of various liquid fats derived from the fruits or seeds of plants, used as drying agents in paint products. Vehicle The liquid carrier of the color pigment.

Vehicle - Portion of a coating that includes all liquids and the binder. The vehicle and the pigment are the two basic components of paint.

Veining - The characteristic stretch marks that develop during the aging process of soft bitumen.

Vellum Glaze - A semi-mat glaze having a satin-like appearance.

Vellum - Fine parchment-like paper used for drawings for reproduction.

Velocimeter - Instrument used to measure air speeds using a direct-reading air speed indicating scale.

Velocity of Sound - A product of frequency times wavelength.

Velocity - Speed, usually expressed in length units per time unit, like miles per hour or feet per second.

Velvet - A gloss range between flat and eggshell.

Vendor - One that sells materials or equipment not fabricated to a special design.

Veneer Plaster Base - A gypsumboard used as the base for application of a gypsum veneer plaster.

Veneer Plaster - A wall finish system in which a thin layer of plaster is applied over a special gypsumboard base.

Veneer - Extremely thin sheets of wood. Also a thin slice of wood or brick or stone covering a framed wall.

Venetian Blind - A window blind which has numerous horizontal slats that may be set at several different angles in order to vary the amount of light admitted.

Venetian Red - Pigment with brick-red color made synthetically by calcining copperas and whiting.

Venetian Terrazzo - A mosaic type of terrazzo topping in which large chips of stone are incorporated.

Vent Cap - The top piece installed over the terminus of a ventilation pipe.

Vent Pipe - A vertical pipe of relatively small dimensions which protrudes through a roof to provide for the ventilation of gasses.

Vent Screed - A sheet metal plaster screed incorporating a vented section used chiefly in roof overhang soffits.

Vent Stack - A vertical vent pipe installed for the purpose of providing circulation of air to and from any part of a drainage system.

Vent - A pipe or duct which allows the flow of air and gasses to the outside. Also, another word for the moving glass part of a window sash, i.e. window vent.

Ventilated - Provided with a means to permit circulation of air sufficient to remove an excess of heat, fumes or vapors.

Ventilation Air - 1. The total volume of air in a system, which is a combination of the air brought into the system from the outdoors and the air that is being recirculated within the building. 2. The fresh air brought into the system from the outdoors.

Ventilator - Device installed on the roof for the purpose of ventilating the interior of the building.

Venting Clip - Clips to provide means to aid in curing and exiting of moisture from concrete or gypsum fill placed on a deck.

Venting of Roof Assembly - The necessary venting to eliminate moisture and vapor in roof systems.

Venting - The process of installing roof vents in a roof assembly to relieve vapor.

Venturi - A short tube with a tapering constriction in the middle that causes an increase in the velocity of flow of a fluid and a corresponding decrease in fluid pressure.

Verbal Quotation - A written document used by the contractor to receive a subcontract or material cost proposal over the telephone prior to the subcontractor or supplier sending their written proposal via mail or facsimile.

Verdigris - 1. A green or bluish-green crystallized substance formed on copper by the action of acetic acid, used as a pigment. 2. Green oxidation on copper, bronze, or brass.

Verge Boards - The boards which serve as the eaves finish on the gable end of a building.

Vermiculite Insulation - A loose mineral fill for thermal insulating applications.

Vermiculite Plaster - 1. A covering that is put on steel beams, concrete slabs, and other heavy construction materials, as a fire-retardant. 2. An insulating and soundproofing plaster.

Vermiculite - A mineral closely related to mica, with the faculty of expanding on heating to form lightweight material with insulation quality; used as bulk insulation and also as aggregate in insulating and acoustical plaster and in insulating concrete floors.

Vermiculite - A mineral used as bulk insulation and also as aggregate in insulating and acoustical plaster and in insulating concrete floors.

Vermiculite - An aggregate somewhat similar to perlite that is used as an aggregate in lightweight roof decks and deck fills. It is formed from mica, a hydrous silicate.

Vermilion - Sulphide of mercury used as a pigment.

Vermont Slate - A fine grained thin-layered rock used for roofing, and paving.

Vernacular - The common building style of a period or place; concerned with ordinary rather than monumental buildings; vernacular architecture.

Vernier - A supplementary scale used on an instrument for obtaining fine adjustment.

Vertical Angle - An angle in a vertical plane.

Vertical Check Valve - A device, mounted vertically, which allows fluid or air to pass through in only one direction.

Vertical Forces - Loads imposed on a structure caused by gravity or the vertical component of wind or earthquake forces.

Vertical Lift Door - A door assembly on a lifting or hoisting device that is opened or closed, bottom to top or top to bottom.

Vertical Louver - A louver equipped with slats that are mounted vertically; see Louver.

Vertical Pattern - A spray pattern whose longest dimension is vertical.

Vertical Pipe - Any pipe or fitting which makes an angle at 45 degrees or less with the vertical.

Vertical Position - In pipe welding, the position of a pipe joint wherein welding is performed in the horizontal position and the pipe may or may not be rotated.

Vertical Reinforcing - steel reinforcing bars in concrete, running vertically, perpendicular to the horizontal bars.

Vertical Shear - The sum of the algebraic forces that are one side of a given cross-section of a member.

Vertical Siding - Exterior wall covering attached vertically to the wood frame of a building or structure.

Vertical Slotted Shelf Standard - Metal strip with slots attached to vertical surfaces as the support part of adjustable shelf hardware.

Vertical Transportation - A general term for elevators, lifts, escalators, and dumbwaiters.

Vertical Wood Board and Batten Siding - Linear vertical wood boards with wood strips covering vertical joints used as an exterior cladding for a framed wall.

Vertical Wood Board Siding - Linear vertical wood material used as exterior surface or cladding for exterior framed wall.

Vertical - Perpendicular to the plane of the horizon; upright.

Vertical-Grained Wood - Edge-grained lumber.

Vertically Laminated Wood - Laminated wood in which the laminations are so arranged that the wider dimension of each lamination is approximately parallel to the direction of load.

Vessels - Wood cells of comparatively large diameter that have open ends and are set one above the other to form continuous tubes; the openings of the vessels on the surface of a piece of wood are usually referred to as pores.

Vestibule - An entrance to a house; usually enclosed.

Vibration Aresstors - soft or flexible substance or device which will reduce the transmission of a vibration.

Vibration Detector - A part of a burglar alarm system.

Vibration Isolation - A method of isolating equipment from a structure to rce the vibration transmission from the equipment, thus rcing the sound transmitted to the structure.

Vibration Isolator - A flexible device supporting vibrating mechanisms or machinery and rcing the vibrations transmitted to the rest of the building or structure.

Vibration - 1. A periodic motion which repeats itself after a definite interval of time. 2. Energetic agitation of a coating to assist in its consolidation, produced by mechanical oscillating devices at moderately high frequencies.

Vibrator - Device for agitating a coating.

Vierendeel Truss - A rigid frame, used as a beam, assembled from parallel top and bottom chords tied together by vertical members.

Vinyl Asbestos Tile - Resilient floor tile consisting of vinyl reinforced with asbestos fibers.

Vinyl Coated Fence - A fence or enclosure built with posts and rails and covered with chain-link which has been factory coated with plastic.

Vinyl Coating - One in which the major portion of the binder is of a vinyl resin.

Vinyl Copolymer - Resins produced by copolymerizing vinyl monomers such as vinyl acetate and vinyl chloride.

Vinyl Faced Panel - sheathing that has been covered by a flexible film or a liquid bonded by heat.

Vinyl Floor Tile - A resilient floor tile made of vinyl.

Vinyl Gasket - A plastic seal between glass and aluminum.

Vinyl Resins - Synthetic resins made from vinyl compounds such as vinyl acetate.

Vinyl Sheet Floor - A thin sheet of vinyl used for the finish of floor surfaces.

Vinyl Sheet - The rolled form of vinyl.

Vinyl Sheetrock - Gypsumboard with a thin layer of vinyl as the finished surface.

Vinyl Siding - Exterior wall coverings made from a thermoplastic compound.

Vinyl Tile - A semi-flexible, resilient floor tile made from polymerized vinyl chloride, vinylide chloride, or vinyl acetate.

Vinyl Trim - Extruded vinyl moldings used for concealing edges, ends, joints, and corners of various sheet materials.

Vinyl Wall Covering - A tough, flexible and shiny film or liquid bonded by heat to a paper or fabric backing material.

Vinyl - A resin with poor adhesion but good hardness, flexibility and resistance. Vinyl is used in plastics, wallcoverings, wood adhesives, swimming pools, tank linings and marine equipment.

Vinyl-Covered Gypsum Board - see Predecorated Wallboard.

Virgin Growth - The growth of mature trees in the original forests; to be distinguished from Second Growth.

Viscoelasticity - The ability of a material to simultaneously exhibit viscous and elastic responses to deformation.

Viscometer - An instrument for the measurement of Viscosity.

Viscosity Cup - A device for measuring viscosity.

Viscosity Grading - A classification system of asphalt cements based on viscosity ranges at 140 Degrees F (60 Degrees C); a minimum viscosity at 275 Degrees F (135 Degrees C) is also usually specified; the purpose is to prescribe limiting values of consistency at these two temperatures; . 140 Degrees F approximates the maximum temperature of asphalt pavement surface in service in the U.S.; 275 Degrees F approximates the mixing and laydown temperatures for hot asphalt pavements; there are five grades of asphalt cement based on the viscosity of the original asphalt at 140 Degrees F.

Viscosity - The internal friction of a liquid which makes it resist a tendency to flow. The higher the viscosity, the thicker the fluid.

Vise Grip - A pliers-like hand tool that has great gripping power through a simple system of highly efficient leverage.

Vise - Bench tool with two jaws that can be closed by turning a screw, for holding work.

Visqueen - A 4 mil or 6 mil plastic sheeting.

Visual Aid Board - A display that has information posted on it with writing, diagrams or pictures to dispense helpful facts.

Vitreous Enamel - A fired-on opaque glassy coating on metal, such as steel.

Vitreous - That degree of vitrification evidenced by low water absorption; vitreous generally signifies less than 0.5% absorption, except for floor and wall tile and low-voltage electrical porcelain which are considered vitreous up to 3.0% water absorption.

Vitrification Range - The maturing range of a vitreous body, producing a vitrified surface.

Vitrification - The progressive reduction in porosity of a ceramic composition as a result of heat treatment, or the process involved.

Vitrified - That which is fused by heat; well burned to a greater degree of hardness.

VOC (Volatile Organic Content) - Any carbon compound that evaporates under standard test conditions. Essentially, all paint solvents except water are VOC's. Federal and state governments are beginning to limit the amount of volatile organics found in paint because of concerns about possible environmental and health effects.

Void Volume - Total empty spaces in a compacted mix.

Void - 1. An unfilled space in a material, of trapped air or other gas. 2. In gypsumboard, a hollow space in the core caused by the entrapment of air during the manufacturing process. 3. In concrete, air spaces resulting from segregation and improper consolidation during placement. 4. In asphalt paving, empty spaces in a compacted mix surrounded by asphalt coated particles

Voidable - A valid provision of a contract that can be made void by following some specified procre.

Volatile Content - Those materials which evaporate; usually expressed as a percentage.

Volatile Flammable Content - A flammable liquid having a flash point below 100 Degrees F. (37.8 Degrees C.) or a liquid whose temperature is above its flash pint.

Volatile Matter - The portion of a coating that evaporates after application.

Volatile Organic Compound - Organic chemicals and petrochemicals that emit vapors while evaporating. In paints, VOC generally refers to the solvent portion of the paint which, when it evaporates, results in the formation of paint film on the substrate to which it was applied.

Volatile Thinner - A liquid that evaporates readily, used to thin or reduce the consistency of finishes without altering the relative volumes of pigments and nonvolatile vehicle.

Volatile - A description of liquids which evaporate or vaporize quickly and boil at ordinary temperatures or at temperatures below the boiling point of water (100 degrees Celsius).

Volatility - The defining quality of a liquid that evaporates quickly when exposed to air.

Volcanic Ash - A fine powder similar to diatomite but lighter in weight, it is used as a filter medium or filter aid in diatomite filters.

Volt - A unit of electrical potential difference; the SI unit of electromotive force; the difference of potential that would carry one ampere of current against one ohm resistance.

Voltage Control - Device used to provide some electrical circuits with uniform or constant voltage.

Voltage Drop - Loss of voltage due to length of run or resistance.

Voltage Regulator - An automatic electrical control device for maintaining a constant voltage supply to the primary of a welding transformer.

Voltage to Ground - In grounded circuits the voltage between the given conductor and that point or conductor of the circuit which is grounded; in ungrounded circuits, the greatest voltage between the given conductor and any other conductor of the circuit.

Voltage - Electrical pressure which causes current to flow.

Voltmeter - An instrument for measuring in volts the differences of potential between different points of an electrical circuit.

Volume Ceiling - Any ceiling higher than the normal.

Volume Solids - Solid ingredients as a percentage of total ingredients. The volume of pigment plus binder divided by the total volume, expressed as a percent. High-volume solids mean a thicker dry film with improved durability.

Volume - The amount of space occupied by a three dimensional solid or gas, measured in cubic units like cubic feet or cubic centimeters.

Volumetric Efficiency - The relationship between the actual performance of a compressor or of a vacuum pump and calculated performance of the pump based on its displacement.

Volute - 1. A spiral scroll characteristic of Ionic capitals, also used in Corinthian and composite capitals. 2. A spiral or scroll-shaped form, as in volute pumps.

Vomitory - One of the passages for entrance and exit in a theater or amphitheater.

Vortex Tube Refrigeration - Refrigerating or cooling device using principle of vortex tube, as in mining suits.

Vortex Tube - Mechanism for cooling or refrigerating which accomplishes cooling effect by releasing compressed air through a specially designed tube.

Voussoir - One of the wedge-shaped pieces of stone or brick forming an arch.

Vulcanizing - Treating rubber with sulphur at a high temperature to harden and toughen it.

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Painting Terms - V

Painting Terms - V