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Abacus - The flat slab on top of a column capital, supporting the architrave.

Abandonment - The failure of both parties to a contract to abide by its terms.

Abatement - Involves either removal of the painted surface, covering the painted surface with an impermeable surface, or covering surface with heavy-duty coating (encapsulant).

Abattoir - A slaughterhouse; a place where animals are butchered for food.

ABC Fire Extinguisher - Fire extinguisher capable of extinguishing type A, B and C fires.

Above Grade - The portion of a building that is above ground level.

Above Ground Tank - A large above ground vessel used for the storage of liquids.

Abradable Coatings - Coatings which are designed to be abraded by a mating surface to form a tight gas or air seal, while retaining good erosion resistance.

Abrade - Scrape or wear away by friction.

Abrasion - Wearing away by friction.

Abrasion Resistance - Resistance to being worn away by rubbing or friction. Abrasion resistance is a matter of toughness, rather than hardness. It is a necessary quality for floor finishes, enamels and varnishes.

Abrasive - Any substance used for wearing away surface by friction. Examples of commonly used abrasives include powdered pumice, rottenstone, sand paper, steel wool, synthetic "wool" abrasives and rubbing compounds.

Abrasive Blasting - Process of propelling hard abrasive materials such as sand, metal or ceramic grit and certain hard plastics under high pressure and velocities for the purpose of removing surface coating materials such as paints, corrosion, oxidation (rust), or other contaminants to smooth, texture, etch, or clean a solid surface. Stand-off distance, angle of attack, and dwell time are the three most important variables under the control of an operator that can affect the quality and effectiveness.

Abrasive Coatings - In closed coating of paper no adhesive is exposed, as surface of paper is completely covered with abrasive; in open coating, surface of backing paper is covered with regulated amount of abrasive, exposing the adhesive; space between the abrasive grains rces loading and filling when sanding gummy or soft materials.

Abrasive Material - A substance, such as a mineral or rock, which because of certain properties such as hardness or toughness is capable of cutting, grinding, honing, polishing, or similar processes.

Abrasive Media - The material used in abrasive blasting to remove surface contaminants. Examples of abrasive media are sand, iron shot, crushed iron lag, glass beads or ground nut shells.

Abrasive Paper - Paper with an abrasive surface; sandpaper, emery paper; garnet paper.

Abrasive Surface - A surface that has been roughened for safety or for warning.

Abrasive Wear - Wear due to hard particles or hard protuberances forced against and moving along a solid surface.

Absolute Humidity - The density of water vapor per unit volume of air.

Absolute Pressure - Pressure above zero pressure; the sum of the gauge and atmospheric pressures.

Absolute Temperature - Temperature measured from absolute zero.

Absolute Viscosity - A method of measuring viscosity using the poise as the basic measurement unit; this method utilizes a partial vacuum to induce flow in the viscometer.

Absolute Volume - The volume of an ingredient in its solid state, without voids between individual pieces or particles; in the case of fluids, the cubic content occupied.

Absorb - To take in and engulf wholly.

Absorbed Moisture - Moisture that has entered a solid material by absorption and has physical properties not substantially different from ordinary water at the same temperature and pressure; in aggregates, that water which is not available to become part of the mixing water.

Absorbent - Having the capacity, tendency, or power to absorb liquids or gas.

Absorptance - The ratio of light absorbed by a material to incident light falling on it.

Absorption Rate - (1) The speed at which the real estate market can absorb new offerings of land or buildings during a specified period of time. (2) The amount of water absorbed when a brick is partially immersed for one minute; usually expressed in either grams or ounces per minute per 30 sq. in; also called suction or initial rate of absorption.

Abstract Of Title - A written summary of all transactions that could affect the ownership of a piece of real property, including deeds, leases, liens, and wills.

Abutment - The lateral supporting structure of an arch, bridge or similar pressure; that part of a pier or wall from which an arch springs, specifically the support at either end of an arch, beam or bridge; that part of a structure which takes the thrust of a beam, arch, vault, truss or girder; the part of a bridge that supports the end of the span and prevents the bank from sliding under it; a foundation that carries gravity and also thrust loads.

Accelerate - To quicken or hasten the natural progress of certain actions or events.

Accelerated Depreciation - The declining balance and sum of the years digits method which give greater depreciation to the early years of the life of the assets.

Accelerated Weathering - An accelerated testing process incorporating any combination of conditions selected to simulate those encountered in practice, but which are intensified artificially in an attempt to accelerate the destructive action of natural (atmospheric) weathering on protective or decorative coating films.

Accelerating Admixture - Substance that increases the rate of hydration, shortens setting time, or increases strength development in concrete, mortar, grout, or plaster.

Acceleration - (1) Requiring change order work to be done without extension of the contract time. (2) Rate of change of the velocity with the respect to time.

Acceleration Clause - A clause in a mortgage or trust deed that would allow the lender to call the whole loan due at any time that certain specified events occur, such as a default in payments or sale of the property.

Accelerator - A substance used in small proportions to increase the speed of a chemical reaction. Accelerators are often used in the paint industry to hasten the curing of a coating system.

Acceptance - (1) Manifestation that a party assents or agrees to a contract. (2) Approval of the work of a construction contract.

Access Control - A computerized security system designed to protect against unauthorized entry into buildings or building areas.

Access Door - A door or panel creating a means of access for the inspection or repair of concealed equipment.

Access Floor - A raised floor platform with removable panels to provide access to the area below.

Access Panel - Removable or swinging panel, usually flush with adjoining surface to provide access to concealed equipment or system components for inspection and maintenance purposes.

Access Stair - A stair system to provide specific access to roofs, mechanical equipment rooms, or as a means of emergency exit.

Accessible Location - A location which can be reached by standing on the floor, platform, runway, or other permanent working area.

Accessory - An object or device aiding or contributing in a secondary way.

Accord and Satisfaction - Conduct of a debtor that indicates agreement to an amount of money owed by the debtor to a creditor.

Accordion Folding Door - A folding, hinged, or creased door with rollers which run along a track.

Accordion Partition - A folded, creased, or hinged interior dividing wall.

Account - A statement of transactions during a fiscal period and the resulting balance in each category of income and expense.

Account Balance - The difference between the sum of the debits and credits.

Accounting - The recording and auditing of financial accounts.

Accounting Period - The time that elapses between the preparation of financial statements.

Accounts Payable - Money owed by the firm to vendors for services or materials.

Accounts Receivable - Money owed to the firm for services rendered or for reimbursements.

Accretion - An increase of land area by the gradual or imperceptible action of natural forces.

Accrual Accounting - A method of keeping accounting records in which income is recorded when services are rendered and expenses are recorded when incurred, rather than when cash is received or paid out.

Accruals - The recognition of income and expenses as they occur even though they are not received or paid for until a later period.

Accrued Expenses - The entry into the liability accounts of expenses, incurred but not paid, at a given date.

Accrued Income - The entry into the asset accounts of income earned, but not received, at a given date.

Accrued Interest - Interest that has been earned but not yet paid.

Accrued Liabilities - Amounts representing liabilities incurred, but not paid, by a given date.

Accumulator - Storage tank which receives liquid refrigerant from evaporator and prevents it from flowing into suction line before vaporizing.

Acetic Acid - A compound, which in the pure state is a colorless, pungent, biting liquid; vinegar contains 4 to 12 percent of acetic acid.

Acetone - A colorless, flammable, volatile liquid solvent used for removing paint, certain oils and other organic compounds.

Acetylene - A colorless hydrocarbon gas, burning with a bright flame, used as a fuel in welding and soldering.

Achromatic - (1) Having no color, being black, gray, or white. (2) Being neutral in color. (3) Difficult to color. (4) Lenses practically free from light of unwanted color.

Acid - A sour substance, one which liberates hydrogen ions in water and is sour and corrosive; will turn litmus red and has a pH of less than 7; acids are generally divided into two classes. (1) strong mineral or inorganic acids such as sulfamic, sulfuric, phosphoric, hydrochloric, or nitric, (2) weak organic or natural acids such as acetic (vinegar), citric (citrus fruit juices), oxalic, and fatty acids (oleic) such as palmitic and stearic. (3) A substance which releases hydrogen ions when dissolved in water. Most acids will dissolve the common metals and will react with a base to form a neutral salt and water.

Acid Embrittlement - A form of hydrogen embrittlement that may be induced in some metals by acid.

Acid Etch - (1) The use of acid to cut lines into metal or glass. (2) The use of acid to remove the surface of concrete.

Acid Rain - Sulfur dioxide emissions combining with water in the atmosphere and falling to the earth.

Acidity - A general term applying to substances on the acid side of neutral.

Acid-Resistant - Resists the effect of prolonged contact with acids.

Acid-Test Radio - A calculation of a firms liquidity position; that is the ratio of its quick assets (readily convertible to cash) to current liabilities.

Acoustic - (1) Relating to sound or the sense of hearing. (2) The properties of a room or auditorium in transmitting sound.

Acoustic Emission - Acoustic emissions are sound or ultrasound pulses generated during crack initiation or propagation in materials and coatings as a result of being subjected to stress. Acoustic emissions can be detected by transducers.

Acoustic Paint - Paint which absorbs or deadens sound.

Acoustical - Relating to sound or to the sense of hearing.

Acoustical Materials - Those capable of absorbing sound waves.

Acoustical Tile - Ceiling panels in board form used for its sound absorbing properties, sometimes used on walls.

Acoustical Treatment - The act or process of applying acoustical materials to walls and ceilings.

Acre - (1) A piece of land measuring 43,560 square feet. (2) Unit for measuring land, equal to 43,560 square feet or 4840 square yards or 160 square rods.

Acre-Foot - A volume unit for measuring large quantities of water as in reservoirs and lakes; the amount of water that would cover one acre one foot deep, equal to 43,560 cubic feet.

Acre-Inch - One twelfth of an acre-foot.

Acrylated Rubber - Resin binder produced from the copolymerisation of styrene and acrylic monomers.

Acrylic - A synthetic polymer used in high-performance latex or water-based paints. As the paint's binder, acrylic resins enable the coating to last longer and retain its color.

Acrylic Coating Material - A coating material composed of acrylic resin.

Acrylic Latex Paint - Water-thinned paint in which only acrylic resin is used as the binder medium. Typically the highest quality latex paints used for a wide variety of architectural coatings, 100% Acrylic Latexes have superior adhesion, long-term flexibility, breath ability, alkali resistance, toughness, and color and sheen retention.

Acrylic Resins - Family of synthetic resins made by polymerizing esters of acrylic acid; synthetic resins of excellent color and clarity used in both emulsion and solvent-based paints.

Acrylonitrile Butadiene Styrene (ABS) - A plastic used for piping; has high resistance to impact, heat, and chemicals.

Act of God - An unexpected event, not within the control of either party, that makes the performance of a contract impossible, unreasonable, or illegal.

Activated Carbon - Specially processed carbon used as a filter-drier; commonly used to clean air; pulverized carbon treated to be especially adsorbent.

Activated Charcoal - See Activated Carbon).

Activator - A catalyst, curing agent, or coreactant, as for an epoxy resin.

Active - The negative direction of electrode potential (Also used to describe corrosion and its associated potential range when an electrode potential is more negative than an adjacent depressed corrosion rate [passive] range.

Actual Notice - The giving of notice by mailing it or handing it to the recipient.

Actuarial Analysis - Statistical analysis of failure data to determine the age-reliability characteristics of an item.

Acute Angle - An angle of less than 90 degrees.

Adaptive Reuse - Adapting an old or historical building for a new purpose.

Addendum - Written information adding to, clarifying or modifying a documents like a bid contract. An addendum is generally issued by the owner to the contractor during the bidding process and as such, addenda are intended to become part of the contract documents when the construction contract is executed.

Addition - New construction added to an existing building or structure.

Additive - A substance added to another to impart different or special qualities; an admixture.

Additive Alternate - An alternate bid that, if accepted, adds to the contract price.

Adherence - The properties of bodies for sticking together.

Adhesion - The degree of attachment between a paint film and the underlying material to which it is in contact (substrate).

Adhesive - (1) A material capable of holding other materials together by surface attachment; glues, cements, pastes, epoxy, and mucilage are some of the common adhesives. (2) A compound, glue, or mastic used in the application of gypsum board products to framing or for laminating one or more layers of gypsum boards.

Adhesive Bond - The relationship between two materials in contact with each other which causes them to be attached. The bond strength between a surface and a coating.

Adhesive Failure - Loss of bond of a coating or sealant from the surface to which it is applied.

Adhesive Spreader - A notched trowel used in the application of laminating adhesives.

Adhesive Strength - The magnitude of attractive forces, generally physical in character, between a coating and substrate. Two principle interactions that contribute to the adhesion are van der Waals forces and permanent dipole bonds.

Adiabatic - (1) Impassable to heat.(2) Occurring without gain or loss of heat.

Adjacent - Nearby or adjoining.

Adjustable Shelf - A shelf that can be adjusted to different heights.

Adjustable Triangle - A transparent plastic drafting tool that can be adjusted and set for any angle.

Adjustable Wrench - An open faced wrench which can be adjusted to different sizes.

Admixture - (1) A material other than water, aggregates, and hydraulic cement used as an ingredient of concrete or mortar, and added immediately before or during its mixing. (2) A chemical additive used to alter the normal properties of concrete. (3) Any substance added to a plaster component or to plaster mortar for the purpose of altering its properties.

Adsorb - To take in on the surface.

Adsorbed Water - Water held on surfaces in a material by either physical and/or chemical forces.

Adsorbent - Usually of a solid, having the ability to attract molecules of liquids, solutions, or gasses that adhere to its surface.

Adsorption - The process of attraction to a surface; the attachment of foreign molecules on the surface of a substance.

Adulteration - The addition of unwanted materials.

Advancing Colors - Colors that give an illusion of being closer to the observer; warm colors in which red-orange predominates.

Advertisement for Bids - Published notice for receiving of bids for a construction project.

Adze - A tool for cutting away the surface of wood, like an axe with an arched blade at right angles to the handle.

Aerator - Device which adds air to water; fills flowing water with bubbles.

Aerial - (1) Relating to the air or atmosphere. (2) An antenna.

Aerobic - An action or process conducted in the presence of air, such as aerobic digestion of organic matter by bacteria.

Aerosol - Use of compressed gas to spray the product from its container.

Aesthetics - Concerned with beauty, refinement, and good taste.

Affidavit - A written statement that is made under oath.

A-Frame - A building structure where the main structural members forming the roof and floors are in an A-shape.

Aftershock - An earthquake occurring subsequent to a large earthquake, the main shock; the magnitude of an aftershock is usually smaller than the main shock.

Age Hardening - Hardening by aging.

Agent - One who acts with delegated authority for a principal.

Agglomerate - Several particles adhering together.

Agglomerated Powder - A powder made up of agglomerates.

Agglomeration - Formation of masses or aggregates of pigments; not dispersed.

Aggregate - Any granular mineral material.

Aggregate, Heavyweight - Aggregate of high specific gravity such as barite, magnetite, limonite, limenite, iron, or steel used to produce heavy concrete.

Aggregate, Lightweight - Aggregate of low specific gravity, such as expanded or sintered clay, shale, slate, diatomaceous shale, perlite, vermiculite, or slag; natural pumice, scoria, volcanic cinders, tuff, and diatomite, sintered fly ash, or industrial cinders; used to produce lightweight concrete; aggregate with a dry, loose weight of 70 pounds per cubic foot or less.

Agitator - Device used to cause motion in confined fluid.

Agreement - An arrangement between the parties regarding a commitement or method of action.

Agricultural Varnishes - Varnishes designed to protect and beautify farm implements and machinery.

Air - Gaseous mixture of 79.0% nitrogen, 20.9% oxygen and 0.1% of carbon dioxide, argon, ozone, helium, plus other gases from natural and man-made substances.

Air Abrasive Blast Cleaning - An abrasive blast cleaning process in which compressed air is used to propel abrasive particles against the surface to be cleaned.

Air Adjusting Valve - Spray gun valve controlling input air.

Air Assisted Airless Spraying - A spraying process that is a modification of airless spraying. Air-assisted airless spraying is a modification of airless spraying, and applies pressurized air at the edges of the airless spray pattern. The resulting paint spray is more fully atomized and, consequently, lower airless spray pressure can be used to achieve proper paint atomization.

Air Bubble - Bubble in paint film caused by entrapped air.

Air Cap (Air Nozzle) - Perforated housing for directing the atomizing air at the head of a air spray gun.

Air Change Method - A method of calculating the quantity of infiltration air into a building.

Air Changes Per Hour - The number of times the air volume of a room or building can be replaced in an hour by an air-handling, circulating, or exhaust system.

Air Cleaner - Device used for removal of airborne impurities.

Air Compressor - A generator that produces compressed air within a chamber by extracting air from the atmosphere, rated in CFM.

Air Conditioner - Device used to control temperature, humidity, cleanliness, and movement of air in conditioned space.

Air Cooler - Mechanism designed to lower temperature of air passing through it.

Air Cure - One method by which liquid coatings cure to a dry film. Oxygen from the air enters the film and cross-links the resin molecules. Also called "Air Dry" and "Oxidizing."

Air Distribution - To force air to desired locations in a building or facility.

Air Drying - The most common form of curing a coating in which drying takes place by oxidation or solvent evaporation by simple exposure to air without heat or catalyst.

Air Entrapment - Minute air bubbles trapped in paint or coating products.

Air Eliminator - A mechanical device that expels excess air.

Air Entrapment - The inclusion of air bubbles in liquid paint or a paint film.

Air Exchange Rate - (1) The number of times that the outdoor air replaces the volume of air in a building per unit time, typically expressed as air changes per hour. (2) The number of times that the ventilation system replaces the air within a room or area within the building.

Air Filter - A porous device used to capture dirt, dust and gaseous particles as air passes through it.

Air Hose - Hose of air supply quality, usually red.

Air Infiltration - Leakage of air into rooms through cracks, windows, doors, and other openings.

Air Jet - In blast cleaning, type of blast cleaning gun in which the abrasive is conveyed to the gun by partial vacuum.

Air Line Respirator - A respirator that is connected to a compressed breathing air source by a hose of small inside diameter. The air is delivered continuously or intermittently in a sufficient volume to meet the wearer's breathing requirements.

Air Lock - Air trapped within a hose which restricts or blocks the flow of liquid through the hose.

Air Manifold - Common air supply chamber for several lines.

Air Monitoring Test - A procre used to determine the contents in a volume of air over a measurable period of time.

Air Nozzle - (See Air Cap).

Air Purger - A mechanical device that removes unwanted air.

Air Purifying Respirator - A respirator that uses chemicals to remove specific gases and vapors form the air or that uses a mechanical filter to remove particulate matter. An air-purifying respirator must only be used when there is sufficient oxygen to sustain life and the air contaminant level is below the concentration limits of the device.

Air Sampling - The collecting of air gases and particles for testing.

Air Scrubber - A portable or stationary machine that captures airborne particles and gases.

Air Spray - Spraying paint by using hydraulic pressure instead of air to atomize the liquid by forcing it through an orifice.

Air Structure - A structure supported by air produced by fans.

Air Tool - Attachments using compressed air to saw, spray-paint, sand, drill, or nail.

Air Transformer - Device for controlled reduction in air pressure.

Air Valve - Control valve in air line system.

Air Vent - (1) An opening in a building or structure for the passage of air. (2) Valve, either manual or automatic, to remove air from the highest point of a coil or piping assembly.

Air Volume - Quantity of air in cubic feet per minute (CFM), at atmospheric pressure.

Air Washer - Device used to clean air while increasing or lowering its humidity.

Air-Assisted Airless - An airless system that uses small amounts of air to help atomize the paint in conjunction with airless spray. Used to get rid of the nagging problem of (Rabbit Ears).

Air-Cooled Condenser - Heat of compression is dissipated from condensing coils to surrounding air, by convection or by a fan or blower.

Air-Dried - Dried by exposure to air without artificial heat.

Air-Entertainment - The process by which air is introduced into a material while in a liquid or plastic state in the form of small isolated bubbles.

Airfield Marking - Lines, markers, or lines placed on airfield to aid in the takeoff and landing of planes.

Airless Spray - A spraying system in which paint is atomized using high hydraulic pressure rather than compressed air.

Airmover - A fan designed to generate an exceptional amount of air volume.

Aisle - A passage space between rows of seats or tables; a passage space between rows of stored goods in a warehouse.

Alabaster - A compact translucent, usually white, form of gypsum, often carved into lamps, vases, and ornaments.

Alarm - A warning sound or device, as in smoke alarm or burglar alarm.

Alclad - Tradename for an aluminum alloy coated with pure aluminum to give high corrosion resistance.

Alcohol - A colorless volatile inflammable liquid, miscible with water, used as a solvent; in full, ethyl alcohol; the alcohols commonly used in painting are ethyl alcohol as a shellac solvent and methyl alcohol or wood alcohol in paint removers.

Alcohol Resisting - Showing no damage when in contact with alcohol.

Alcove - A small recessed section of a room or outdoor area.

Alfresco - In the open air.

Algae - Small primitive plants containing chlorophyll, commonly found in surface water. Excessive growths may create taste and odor problems, and consume dissolved oxygen during decay.

Algaecide - Chemical that kills algae.

Algistat - Chemical that inhibits algae growth.

Alienation - A conveyance of property to another.

Align - To be or come into precise adjustment or correct relative position.

Aliphatic - Describes a major class of organic compounds, many of which are useful as solvents.

Aliphatic Hydrocarbons - Solvents distilled from petroleum which are "straight chain" hydrocarbons. Examples include kerosene, mineral spirits (paint thinner) and naphtha.

Alizarin Lake - A bright red pigment with blue undertone made from the organic coal tar dyestuff, alizarin; some purple pigments are also marketed under this name.

Alkali - A chemical substance which effectively neutralizes acid material so as to form neutral salts; a base, the opposite of acid; examples are ammonia and caustic soda; highly destructive to oil paint films.

Alkali Burn - A condition that occurs when the alkalinity in fresh masonry causes the breakdown of a paint's binder, resulting in color loss and overall deterioration of the paint film. Most likely to occur with vinyl-acrylic latex and oil-based paints applied to masonry surfaces that are less than a year old.

Alkaline - Having properties of an alkali with a pH greater than 7.

Alkaline Cleaner - A material blended from alkali hydroxides and such alkaline salts as borates, carbonates, phosphates, or silicates. The cleaning action may be enhanced by the addition of surface-active agents and special solvents.

Alkaline Paint Stripper - A paint stripper comprised of relatively diluted concentrations of sodium hydroxide, potassium hydroxide, and other highly alkaline materials, often in combination with solvents and detergents to aid in removing paint. These strippers are effective only on oleo resinous-type coatings. It can take several hours for the alkali to attack and break down the paint resin.

Alkalinity - Amount of bicarbonate, carbonate, or hydroxide compounds in water.

Alkyd - A synthetic resin widely used in the manufacture of paints and varnishes. Alkyd paint must be thinned and cleaned up with solvent or paint thinner. The terms alkyd paint and oil-based paint are generally used interchangeably.

Alkyl Benzene Sulfonate - A term applied to a family of branched chain chemical compounds, formerly used as detergents,. Sometimes called "hard" detergents, because of their resistance to biological degradation, these compounds have been largely replaced with linear alkyl sulfonate (LAS) which are more readily degraded to simpler substances.

All Risk Policy - A property insurance policy that insures against all risks of loss that are not specifically excluded.

Allen Wrench - An L-shaped hexagonal rod designed to fit into a hexagonal hole in a bolt head; also called an Allen Key.

Allergy - An abnormal response of a hypersensitive person to chemical and physical stimuli. Allergic manifestations of major importance occur in about 10 percent of the population.

Alligatoring - (1) Cracks in the surface layer of materials which widen from contraction caused by a sudden change in temperature, lack of binder, insufficient drying time between coats, poor penetration, or applying a hard film over a soft undercoat. (2) Extensive breaking of paint film when the second coat is applied over a primer not thoroughly dried. Sometimes referred to as crocodiling.

Allowance - A sum of money set aside in the construction contract for items which have not been selected and specified in the construction contract. For example, a painting allowance which sets aside an amount of money to be spent on painting.

Alloy - (1) A substance composed of two or more metals. (2) Or of a metal and a nonmetallic constituent.

Alloy Steel - Steel with modified properties made by combining iron with one or more elements in addition to carbon. Alloys change the properties of the steel making it, for example, harder, more formable, or more corrosion resistant, depending on the combination and amounts of alloys used.

All-Purpose Compound - In gypsum wallboard installation, a joint treatment material that can be used as a bedding compound for tape, a finishing compound, and as a laminating adhesive or texturing product.

Alteration - Any act or process that changes one or more of the exterior architectural features of a structure, including, but not limited to, the erection, construction, reconstruction, addition, sand blasting, water blasting, chemical cleaning, chemical stopping, or removal of any structure, but not including changes to the color of exterior paint.

Alterations - A term used to describe partial painting work performed within an existing structure.

Alternate - A stipulated construction item and its cost, in addition to the original base bid, for a specific item to be included or excluded from the project; a mutually agreed upon item that is used in place of the originally specified item.

Alternate Bid - Amount stated in the bid to be added or deducted from the base bid amount proposed for alternate materials and/or methods of painting.

Alternate-Immersion Test - A corrosion test in which the specimens are intermittently exposed to a liquid medium at definite time intervals.

Alternative Dispute Resolution (ADR) - Resolution of a dispute without litigation, includes negotiation, mediation, and arbitration.

Aluminum - A bluish silver-white malleable metallic element with good electrical and thermal conductivity, high reflectivity and resistance to oxidation.

Aluminum Oxide - (1) Corrosion on surface of an aluminum member caused by oxidation. (2) Hard and sharp abrasive made by fusing mineral Bauxite at high temperature.

Aluminum Paint - A paint which contains particles of aluminum. It can prevent discoloration where mildew is present, resist corrosion when applied to steel, serve as a heat and flame retardant, and coat asbestos-cement siding.

Aluminum Silicate - White extender pigment made from China clay or feldspar, which provides very little color or opacity.

Amalgamate - To join together into one, to unite or combine. To restore old paint or lacquer products by using chemicals.

Ambience - The feeling of the surroundings or atmosphere of a place.

Ambient - Surrounding on all sides; encompassing, as the ambient temperature.

Ambient Temperature - The temperature around a given area.

Ambiguous - Having more than one meaning, as in a contract.

Ambulatory - A sheltered place for walking, as in an aisle or cloister in a church or monastery.

Amenity - Pleasant or useful features in real estate that contribute satisfaction and pleasure rather than direct financial benefit.

American Process Zinc Oxide - Zinc oxide pigment made directly from zinc ores; also called Direct Process.

American Vermillon - Chrome orange pigment.

Americans with Disabilities Act - National legislation prohibiting discrimination against disabled individuals; the act includes detailed requirements for the planning and design of buildings.

Amide - A functional group which can act as an epoxy resin curing agent.

Amine Adduct - Amine curing agent combined with a portion of the resin.

Amines - Organic substituted ammonia; curing agent combined with epoxy resins.

Ammonia - Chemical combination of nitrogen and hydrogen.

Amphoteric - A term applied to oxides and hydroxides which can act basic toward strong acids and acidic toward strong alkalis. Substances which can dissociate electrolytically to produce hydrogen or hydroxyl ions according to conditions.

Amyl Acetate - Banana oil; solvent for nitrocellulose, formed by esterification of acetic acid with amyl alcohol.

Anaglyph - A sculptured, chased, or embossed ornament worked in low relief.

Analogous Harmony - Colors which are related by containing one color in common; color harmony.

Analysis - (1) Separation into constituent parts. (2) In engineering, the investigative determination of the detailed aspects of a particular phenomenon; may be qualitative, meaning a general evaluation of the nature of the phenomenon, or quantitative, meaning the numerical determination of the magnitude of the phenomenon.

Anchor Pattern - Profile surface roughness usually attained by blasting.

Anchoring - Mechanical bonding of a coating to a rough surface as contrasted with adhesion, which is chemical bonding.

Anemometer - Instrument for measuring the rate of air flow or motion.

Aneroid Barometer - An instrument for measuring atmospheric air pressure by its action on the elastic lid of an evacuated box. This is the basis of a surveyors aneroid barometer which is used to measure altitude; an altimeter.

Angle Blasting - Blast cleaning at angles less than 90 degrees.

Angle Float - A concrete or plastering finishing tool having a surface bent to form a right angle; used to finish re-entrant angles.

Angle Of Degree - On an airless spray cap, the orifice angle; controls width of spray and pattern angle.

Angle Of Incidence - The angle that a line or light ray striking a surface makes with the perpendicular at that point, the point of incidence.

Angle Of Reflection - The angle that a reflected ray makes with the perpendicular to a surface at the point of incidence.

Angle Of Repose - (1) The natural angle that a pile of a material, such as earth, sand, or gravel will assume. (2) The angle at which a body will slide down an inclined plane impelled only by gravity.

Anhydrite - The mineral consisting primarily of anhydrous calcium sulfate.

Anhydrous - A material containing no water.

Aniline Colors - Coal-tar derivatives precipitated on a colorless base.

Aniline Dye - Any dye produced synthetically from coal tar products. Commonly a blue, poisonous dye.

Annex - A wing or an addition to a building.

Annual Growth Ring - The layer of wood growth put on a tree during a single growing season, comprised of springwood and summerwood.

Anode - The electrode of an electrolytic cell at which oxidation is the principal reaction. (Electrons flow away from the anode in the external circuit. It is usually the electrode where corrosion occurs and metal ions enter solution.

Anode Corrosion Efficiency - The ratio of the actual corrosion (weight loss) of an anode to the theoretical corrosion (weight loss) calculated by Faraday's law from the quantity of electricity that has passed.

Anodic Cleaning - Electrolytic cleaning in which the work is the anode. Also called reverse-current cleaning.

Anodic Coating - A coating that becomes the anode in an electrochemical cell with the substrate (cathode). The only metals in common use for thermal spraying which are anodic to iron and steel are zinc and aluminum.

Anodic Inhibitor - An inhibitor that reduces the corrosion rate by acting on the anodic (oxidation) reaction.

Anodic Protection - A technique to reduce corrosion of a metal surface under some conditions by passing sufficient to it to cause its electrode potential to enter and remain in the passive region; imposing an external electrical potential to protect a metal from corrosive attack. (Applicable only to metals that show active-passive behavior.) Contrast with cathodic protection.

Anodize - Coat a metal, such as aluminum, with a protective oxide layer by electrolysis.

Anodizing - An electrolytic process that forms a permanent, protective coating on aluminum.

Anomaly - An irregularity, abnormality, peculiarity, or deviation from the norm.

Antenna - A metallic device used for radiating or receiving radio waves.

Anterior - Situated before or toward the front.

Anteroom - A small room leading to a main room; a waiting room.

Anticipatory Breach - A positive statement by a party to a contract that the party will not perform the terms of the contract.

Anti-Corrosive Coating Material - A coating material developed to protect a surface from corrosion.

Anti-Corrosive Paint - A paint designed to minimize rust or corrosion when applied directly to metal.

Anti-Foaming Agent - An ingredient added to the materials in chemical processing to reduce the tendency to foam, especially to water-thinned paints both in manufacture and application. Octyl alcohol is one of the most commonly used anti-foaming agents.

Anti-Fouling Paint - Paints formulated especially for boat decks and hulls, docks and other below-water-line surfaces and structures to prevent the growth of barnacles and other organisms on ships' bottoms.

Antimicrobial - Agent that kills microbial growth.

Antimony Oxide - Pure white pigment which provides about same hiding power as lithopone.

Antioxidant - Protective compound used on ends of aluminum wiring at connections to prevent corrosion that would interfere with a solid safe connection.

Antique Finish - A finish usually applied to furniture or woodwork to give the appearance of age.

Antiquing - Furniture finishing technique intended to give appearance of age or wear.

Anti-Skinning Agent - A synthetic organic product, used to prevent forming of surface skin in packaged varnishes and paints.

Antislip Paint - Paint containing abrasive particles, such as sand, wood flour, or cork dust, which possesses a high coefficient of friction. Antislip paint may be used on steps and walkways to prevent slippage.

Apartment - A suite of rooms, usually let as a dwelling; a dwelling unit.

Apartment Hotel - A hotel containing apartments as well as transient rooms.

Apartment House - A building containing three or more separate residential apartments; also called an Apartment Building.

Aperture - Any opening.

Apex - The highest point; vertex.

Apices - Plural of apex.

Apparent Density - The weight of a unit volume of powder or coating.

Apparent Hardness - The value obtained by testing a coating or sintered material with standard indentation hardness equipment. Since the reading reflects a composite of pores and solid material, (which may be particles relatively poorly bonded together) it is usually lower than that of an equivalent solid wrought or cast material. Not to be confused with particle hardness. (See also microhardness)

Application For Payment - A written document forwarded by the contractor requesting payment for work completed.

Application Rate - The quantity (mass, volume or thickness) of material applied per unit area.

Applicator - (1) One who applies. (2) Tool for applying.

Applied Hiding - Refers not only to the opacity of the paint film, but also to how it hides, depending on its thickness and how smoothly it flows out. Must take into account how the paint is applied (brush, roller, spray, etc.).

Applied Preservative Treated - Applied treatment of wood or plywood to make it resistant to deterioration from moisture and insects.

Appraise - To give an expert judgment of the value or merit of.

Appreciation - The increase in value of a property from any cause.

Apprentice - A person who is learning a trade, art or calling by being employed in it for an agreed period for low wages.

Apprentice Painter - A person who works under a skilled journeyman painter while learning the trade.

Approved - Acceptable to that enforcing agency having the responsibility and authority to grant the approval for the specified condition or application.

APR - Annual Percentage Rate.

Apron - The trim board that is installed beneath a window sill.

Apron Wall - That part of a panel wall between the window sill and the support of the panel wall.

Aprroach - The area between the sidewalk and the street that leads to a driveway or the transition from the street as you approach a driveway.

Apse - A projecting part of a building, such as in a church, usually semicircular and vaulted.

Aquct - (1) An artificial channel or conduit for conveying large quantities of water, usually supported by a bridge-like structure. (2) A structure for conveying a canal over a river or a valley.

Aqueous - Pertaining to water; an aqueous solution is made by using water as a solvent.

Aquifer - A layer or zone below the surface of the earth which is capable of yielding a significant volume of water.

Arabesque - An ornament, style or design of intertwined leaves, flowers, or fruit to produce an intricate pattern of interlaced lines.

Arabic Numeral - One of the number symbols, 0, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9.

Arbitration - (1) A proceeding for resolution of disputes in which a neutral person or panel, after hearing evidence presented by both sides, makes a final and binding decision that resolves the dispute. (2) A hearing used to resolve disputes.

Arbitration Award - The arbitrators judgment or decision in an arbitration.

Arbitration Demand - A written notice by one party to a contract served on the other to avail of the arbitration provisions of the contract.

Arbor - (1) A light open-work structure of wood or metal, covered or intended to be covered with vines, as in a park or garden. (2) An Axle or spindle on which something revolves. (3) A device holding a tool in a lathe.

Arc - (1) Arched or curved. (2) A portion of an ellipse or circle.

Arc Blow - The deflection of an electric arc from its normal path because of magnetic forces.

Arc Voltage - The voltage (electrical potential) across the welding arc.

Arc Welding - A process of joining two pieces of metal by melting them together at their interface with a continuous electric spark and adding a controlled additional amount of molten metal from a metallic electrode.

Arc Wire Spraying - A thermal spray process where two electrically conducting wires are brought together to form an electric arc. Molten material formed in the arc is projected by a compressed gas stream towards the work piece to form a coating.

Arcade - (1) An arched covered passageway. (2) An amusement center with coin-operated games.

Arch - A curved structural member used to span an opening or recess; also built flat. Structurally, an arch is a piece or assemblage of pieces so arranged over an opening that the supported load is resolved into pressures on the side supports, and practically normal to their faces.

Arch Brick - Wedge-shaped brick for special use in an arch.

Arch Corner Bead - A job-shaped length of corner bead used to define the curved portion of arched openings.

Arch Culvert - A curved shaped drain under a roadway, canal or embankment.

Archeology - The study of human history and prehistory through the excavation of sites and the analysis of human remains.

Archetype - An original model; a Prototype.

Archimedes Principle - A law of physics that states that a floating body displaces a weight of liquid equal to its own weight.

Archimedes Screw - A primitive device for raising water, consisting of a pipe spirally wound around an axis.

Arching - Spray painting in a semi-circular arc and not vertically or horizontally to the ground. Arching: Spray painting in a semi-circular arc and not vertically or horizontally to the ground.

Architect - One who designs buildings and advises on their construction.

Architect - One who has completed a course of study in building and design, and is licensed by the state as an architect, designs buildings, draws up plans, and advises on their construction.

Architect-Engineer - An individual or firm offering professional services as both architect and engineer.

Architectonic - (1) Architectural. (2) Having an organized and unified structure or concept that suggests an architectural design.

Architectonics - The science of architecture.

Architects Basic Services - A recognized series of phases performed by an architect as follows: 1st Schematic Design Phase, 2nd Design Development Phase, 3rd Construction Document Phase, 4th Bidding or Negotiated Phase, 5th Construction Phase.

Architects Project Representative - A more or less continuous architects representative on the jobsite; reports to the architect; formerly called Clerk of the Works.

Architects Rule (Ruler) - Three sided ruler with different scales on each side. Also referred to as a "scale."

Architectural - (1) Of or relating to or conforming to the rules of architecture. (2) Having a single, unified overall design, form, or structure.

Architectural Conservation - The physical intervention in a building to counteract deterioration or to ensure its structural stability. Some typical treatments include the cleaning of wallpaper, reattachment of loose plaster, masonry repointing, and consolidation of an existing foundation.

Architectural Drawing - A line drawing showing plan and/or elevation views of the proposed building for the purpose of showing the overall appearance of the building.

Architectural Element - The unique details and parts that together form the architectural style.

Architectural Equipment - The implements, apparatus, or equipment used in the construction and initial outfitting of a building.

Architectural Feature - Prominent or significant parts or elements of a building or structure. Finish elements of construction as opposed to structural elements. Typical architectural features include windows and frames, railings, fascia, soffits, doors and frames, casework and cabinets, and miscellaneous trim.

Architectural Fee - The amount of money charged by an architect for professional services such as programming, design, preparation of contract documents, and administration of the construction of a building or facility.

Architectural Painting - Decorative painting; aesthetic painting; painting for appearance rather than for protection.

Architectural Style - The characteristic form and detail of buildings from a particular historical period or school of architecture.

Architectural Terra Cota - Hard-burned, glazed or unglazed clay building units, plain or ornamental, machine-extruded or hand-molded, and generally larger in size than brick or facing tile; also see Ceramic Veneer.

Architectural Woodwork - A higher than average quality of finish wood work for ornamental design.

Architrave - (1) The lowest division of an entablature. (2) The molding around a rectangular opening, such as a door or window.

Are - A metric unit of measure equal to 100 square meters. 100 ares equal 1 hectare.

Area - (1) The extent or measure of a surface, expressed in square units. (2) The space allocated to a particular function.

Area Divider - In roof construction, a raised double wood member attached to a properly flashed wood base plate that is anchored to the roof deck; used to relieve the stresses of thermal expansion and contraction in a roof system where no expansion joints have been provided.

Area Drain - Any drain installed for the purpose of collecting rain water from an open area and channeling it to the storm drain.

Area Wall - (1) The masonry surrounding or partly surrounding an area. (2) The retaining wall around basement windows below grade.

Area Wells - Corrugated metal or concrete barrier walls installed around a basement window to hold back the earth.

Areaway - A sunken space providing access, air, and light to a subterranean building area.

Argon (Ar) - Monatomic noble gas, atomic number 18, one of the most inert elements. Commonly used as a plasma gas for plasma spraying and providing inert environments for many processes.

Armor Plate - A kick-plate made of metal installed on the bottom of a door to protect it from denting and scratching.

Armored Cable - Metal sheathed flexible electrical cable; BX cable.

Armored Faceplate - A metal plate which is fastened into the strike at the door jamb to provide a protection for the lock and keeper mechanisms.

Aromatic - Derived from or belonging to a major class of organic compounds, many of which are useful as solvents.

Aromatic Hydrocarbons - Strong solvents such as benzene, toluene, xylene.

Arrester - A device to impede the flow of large dust particles or sparks from a stack, usually screening at the top.

Arris - The sharp edge or salient angle formed by the meeting of two surfaces, as in a molding.

Art - Work exhibiting human creative skill or its application; creative activity; human skill or workmanship; an occupation requiring knowledge or skill.

Artesian Well - (1) A bored well from which water flows from internal pressure. (2) A deep- bored well.

Artificer - (1) A skilled or artistic craft worker. (2) An inventor.

Artificial Aging - Aging above room temperature. See also aging. Compare with natural aging.

Artificial or Accelerated Drying - The process of drying block or brick with relatively warm, dry air, or other means.

Artificial Pozzolan - Fly ash and other similar substances such as rice hull ash and microsilica.

Artisan - A skilled worker in a trade such as carpentry, plumbing, or painting.

Asbestine - Natural fibrous magnesium silica, which is pure white in color; used as an extender pigment in paints.

Asbestos - A group of natural, fibrous, impure silicate materials, formerly used for its noncombustible, non-conducting, or chemically resistant properties; no longer used as it causes Asbestosis

Asbestos Abatement - Procres to control fiber release from asbestos-containing materials in a building or to remove it entirely; may involve removal, encapsulation, repair, enclosure, encasement, and operations and maintenance programs.

Asbestos Cement - Cement asbestos.

Asbestos Program Manager - A building owner or designated representative who supervises all aspects of the facility asbestos management and control program.

Asbestos Removal - A special trade or occupation for the removal and disposal of hazardous asbestos.

Asbestos Vacuum - A filtered device using air suction to collect wetted down asbestos for easy removal into specially made bags.

Asbestos-Containing Material (ACM) - Any material containing more than one percent asbestos.

Asbestos-Free Compound - Joint treatment products that have no asbestos fiber.

Asbestosis - A lung disease caused by inhaling asbestos particles.

As-Built Drawings (also known as Record Drawings) - Contract drawings marked up to reflect changes made during the construction process.

As-Built Drawings - (See Record Drawings).

As-Builts - (See Record Drawings).

Aseismic Region - A region that is relatively free of earthquakes.

Ash - The incombustible inorganic matter in the fuel.

Ash Dump - A metal access door in the floor of a fireplace firebox to dump the ashes into the ash pit below.

Ash Pit - The compartment below a fireplace in which ashes may be dumped from the firebox and stored for later removal.

Ashlar - A pattern of masonry consisting of squared stones.

Ashlar Veneer - An ornamental or protective facing of masonry composed of squared stones.

Askarael - A synthetic nonflammable insulating liquid which, when decomposed by the electric arc, evolves only nonflammable gaseous mixtures.

Asphalt - A brown to black bituminous pitch occurring naturally or made from a residue of petroleum refining; also called asphaltum; used for waterproofing protective coating. Also called gilsonite, pitch or tar.

Asphalt Cement - A fluxed or unfluxed asphalt specially prepared as to quality and consistency for direct use in the manufacture of asphalt pavements.

Asphalt Coating Material - A coating material composed solely or primarily of asphalt.

Asphalt Cut Back - Asphalt plus thinner; asphalt solution; asphalt coating formed by dissolving asphalt.

Asphalt Dampproofing - The application of asphalt to act as a water-resisting treatment to the surface of a concrete or masonry wall.

Asphalt Emulsion - Asphalt dispersion; not a solution; a water emulsion of asphalt.

Asphalt Felt - An asphalt-saturated felt or an asphalt-coated felt.

Asphalt Mastic - A mixture of asphaltic material, mineral aggregates, and fine mineral aggregates that can be poured when heated but needs mechanical manipulation to apply when cool.

Asphalt Membrane - A layer of asphalt used on a flat roof.

Asphalt Prime Coat - A low viscosity liquid asphalt applied to prepare an untreated surface to penetrate into the voids, harden the top and help bind it to the overlying asphalt surface.

Asphalt Rock - Porous rock such as sandstone or limestone that has become impregnated with natural asphalt through geologic process; also called Rock Asphalt.

Asphalt Roof - A roof system which uses asphalt materials as a covering.

Asphalt Saturated Felt - A building and roofing felt sheet impregnated with a bituminous waterproofing material.

Asphalt Shingle - Saturated roofing felt either in large rolls or cut into composition shingles, impregnated with aggregate particles applied to a roof surfaces.

Asphalt Surface - A flat layer of asphalt.

Asphaltenes - The high molecular weight hydrocarbon fraction precipitated from asphalt by a designated paraffinic naphtha solvent at a specified solvent-asphalt ratio.

Asphaltic Paint - (1) A liquid form of asphalt which can contain other materials such as aluminum flakes and mineral pigments, generally used for creating a water-resistant coating. (2) A liquid product used for weatherproofing.

Asphyxiant - A vapor or gas which can cause unconsciousness or death by suffocation (lack of oxygen). Asphyxiation is one of the principal potential hazards of working in confined spaces.

Aspirating Psychrometer - Device which draws sample of air through it to measure humidity.

Assemblage - (1) Something put together from parts. (2) A random, unordered assemblage is called a gathering. (3) An ordered assemblage is a system.

Assembly Area - An outdoor place for the gathering of a group of people exiting from a building or for an cational, sporting, or entertainment event.

Assembly Room - A room for the gathering of a group of people, such as an auditorium, gymnasium, restaurant, or meeting room.

Assessed Value - The value of a parcel of real property, usually a fraction of the market value, used for the purpose of determining the amount of property tax.

Asset - A possession or resource having value.

Assignment - Transfer of the rights and duties under a contract from one party to another.

Astragal - A molding, attached to one of a pair of swinging double doors, against which the other door strikes.

Astragal - An interior molding attached to one of a pair of doors or window sash in order to prevent swinging through; also used with sliding doors to insure tighter fitting where doors meet.

Astragal Weatherstripping - Fabric, rubber or plastic strips attached to the molding that is attached to one of a pair of doors or casement windows to cover the joint between the two stiles.

Asymmetrical - Not symmetrical; asymmetry.

Athletic Equipment - Various devices used for exercising or the playing of sporting events.

Atmosphere Supplying Respirator - A respirator that provides breathing air from a source independent of the surrounding atmosphere. There are two types: air-line and self-contained breathing apparatus.

Atmospheric Air - Air under the prevailing atmospheric conditions.

Atmospheric Corrosion - The gradual degradation or alteration of a material by contact with substances present in the atmosphere, such as oxygen, carbon dioxide, water vapor, and sulfur and chlorine compounds.

Atmospheric Pressure - The pressure that atmospheric gases in air exert upon the earth; measured in pounds per square inch or grams per square centimeter; one standard atmosphere equals 14.69 psi of pressure and measures 760 mm (29.92 inches) in a barometer of mercury.

Atom - The smallest particle of a chemical element; considered as a source of vast potential energy.

Atomic-Hydrogen Welding - Arc welding in which molecular hydrogen, passing through an arc between two tungsten or other suitable electrodes, is changed to its atomic form and then re-combines to supply the heat for welding.

Atomization - (1) The dispersion of a molten material into particles by a rapidly moving gas or liquid stream or by mechanical dispersion. (2) The formation of tiny droplets of liquid as in the paint spraying process. Atomization is usually caused by turbulence in an air stream, or a sudden drop in pressure.

Atomize - To reduce to a fine spray or mist, as in airless spray painting.

Atomized Powder - A powder produced by the dispersion of a molten material into particles by a rapidly moving gas or liquid stream or by mechanical dispersion.

Atomizing - The mechanical subdividing of a liquid or solid into a spray of fine particles.

Atrium - A central courtyard with surrounding rooms opening off it.

Attenuation - The reduction of the energy or intensity of sound.

Attenuation Blanket - Material utilized to help in the reduction of the energy or intensity of sound.

Attic - A room or space immediately below the roof of a building.

Attic Access - An opening that is placed in the ceiling of a home to provide access to the attic.

Attic Draft Stop - A partition in an attic, from roof to ceiling level, dividing the attic into discrete areas to prevent the spread of smoke and drafts.

Attic Insulation - Treated shreds of cellulose material that are blown into attic spaces or fiberglass rolls that are rolled out between ceiling joists to aid in weatherproofing a building or facility.

Attic Ventilators - (1) Openings in the roof or in gables for the purpose of allowing air to circulate. (2) Mechanical devices with power-driven fans to force the circulation of air.

Attorney - A qualified lawyer licensed to practice.

Attorney-in-Fact - A person acting for another under the authority of a power of attorney.

Attrition - In water treatment, the process in which solids are worn down or ground down by friction, often between particles of the same material. Filter media and ion exchange materials are subject to attrition during backwashing, regeneration and service.

Audio Sensor - A device that responds to the physical stimulus of sound and transmits a resulting impulse.

Audit - A formal examination and report of a persons or entitys financial condition, usually by a qualified certified public accountant.

Auditorium - A building or room where an audience sits.

Auger - An instrument or device used for boring or forcing through materials or soil.

Austenite - A solid solution of one or more elements in face-centered cubic iron. Unless otherwise designated (such as nickel austenite), the solute is generally assumed to be carbon.

Austenitic - The name given to the face-centered cubic crystal structure (FCC) of ferrous metals. Ordinary iron and steel has this structure at elevated temperatures; also certain stainless steels (300 series) have this structure at room temperature.

Austenitizing - Forming austenite by heating a ferrous alloy into the transformation range (partial austenitizing) or above the transformation range (complete austenitizing). When used without qualification, the term implies complete austenitizing.

Authorized Person - One who is properly authorized to perform specific duties under the conditions existing, usually in relation to a contract.

Autoclave - A pressure vessel in which an environment of superheated steam at high pressure may be produced; used for sterilizing, assisting a chemical reaction, in the curing of concrete products, and in the testing of hydraulic cement.

Autoclave Curing - Steam curing of concrete products, sand-lime brick, asbestos-cement products, hydrous calcium silicate insulation products, also called High Pressure Steam Curing.

Autoclaved Aerated Concrete - A factory-produced building stone; precast, lightweight concrete, in the form of large building blocks, panels, or planks; made of closed cell concrete steam cured in a pressurized autoclave.

Autoclaving - The production of a stable, protective oxide on steel parts by treatment in a pressurized, high temperature steam containing atmosphere.

Automatic - (1) A device that works by itself without human intervention, usually actuated by some impersonal influence, as for example, a change in current strength, pressure, temperature, or mechanical configuration. (2) Done spontaneously without conscious intention, see Non-Automatic.

Automatic Control - Valve action reached through self-operated or self-actuated means, not requiring manual adjustment.

Automatic Cyclic Control - A control system in which the opening and closing of the weigh hopper discharge gate, the bituminous discharge valve, and the pugmill discharge gate are actuated by means of self-acting mechanical or electrical machinery without any intermediate manual control. The system includes preset timing devices to control the desired periods of dry and wet mixing cycles.

Automatic Defrost - System of removing ice and frost from evaporators automatically.

Automatic Door - A door equipped with a power-operated mechanism and controls that open and close the door automatically upon receipt of a momentary actuating signal; the switch that begins the automatic cycle may be a photoelectric device, floor mat, or manual switch.

Automatic Dryer Control - In a concrete batching plant, a system that automatically maintains the temperature of aggregates discharged from the dryer within a preset range.

Automatic Skimmer - See Surface Skimmer.

Automaton - A piece of mechanism with concealed motive power; a Robot.

Auxiliary Electrode - The electrode in an electrochemical cell that is used to transfer current to or from a test electrode, usually made of non-corroding material.

Auxiliary Heat - The extra heat provided by a conventional heating system for periods of cloudiness or intense cold, when a solar heating system is insufficient.

Auxiliary Switch - A standby device for switching.

Average - (1) An arithmetic mean. (2) An amount obtained by adding the elements of a set and dividing by the number in the set. (3) The ordinary standard.

Average Life - How long, on average, a component will last before it suffers a failure. Commonly measured by Mean Time Between Failures (MTBF).

Aviary - An enclosure or building for keeping birds confined.

Avoirdupois Weight - The weight system based on the pound of 16 ounces and the ounce of 16 drams.

Award - (1) Arbitration award. (2) Contract award.

Awarding Authority - The owner or the agent of the owner who awards an original building or construction contract, also known as the prime contract; this term is generally used with public works.

Awl - A small sharp pointed hand tool for marking lines or piercing small holes.

Awning - A sheet of canvas, plastic, or metal stretched on a frame to give shelter over a window, doorway, or other area.

Awning Window - A window hinged at the top.

Axis - A straight line of reference; in three dimensions, the three axes are referred to as x, y, and z.

Axis of Symmetry - A line dividing an area into two similar but opposite handed figures.

Axle - A fixed or rotating rod or spindle on which a wheel or group of wheels rotate.

Axonometric Projection - A drafting projection in which objects on the drawing appear inclined with three sides showing and with horizontal and vertical distances drawn to scale but diagonal and curved lines distorted.

Azeotrope - Having constant maximum and minimum boiling points.

Azimuth - The horizontal angle or direction of a compass bearing.

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Painting Terms - A

Painting Terms - A